Globally, 5 serogroups (A, B, C, W, and Y) cause the majority of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). Vaccines targeting these serogroups are currently part of the US adolescent immunization platform, which includes 1 + 1 dosing of a MenACWY vaccine routinely at ages 11 and 16 years and 2 doses of a MenB vaccine at age 16-23 years under shared clinical decision-making between the patient and healthcare provider. In 2018, MenACWY vaccination coverage was 86.6% for ≥1 dose and 50.8% for ≥2 doses, whereas MenB vaccination coverage was 17.2% for ≥1 dose and <50% for completion of the multidose series. A pentavalent MenABCWY vaccine could simplify immunization schedules and improve vaccination coverage. We estimated the public health impact of a pentavalent MenABCWY vaccine using a model that considers meningococcal carriage and vaccination coverage.
A population-based dynamic model estimated the 10-year reduction in IMD from implementing a MenABCWY vaccine within the existing US meningococcal immunization platform. Five vaccination schedules (4 new, 1 existing) were examined to estimate the impact of different recommendations on the overall reduction in the number of IMD cases. Sensitivity analyses were performed by varying vaccination coverage at age 16 years.
The existing schedule and coverage of MenACWY and MenB vaccines (total 4 doses) could potentially avert 165 IMD cases over 10 years versus no vaccination. Assuming similar MenABCWY and MenACWY vaccination coverage rates at age 16 years, replacing 1 or more MenACWY and/or MenB doses with MenABCWY could avert more cases, ranging from 189 to 256. The most beneficial MenABCWY vaccine schedule was 2 doses at age 11 years and 1 dose at age 16 years.
Replacing one or more MenACWY/MenB vaccine doses with MenABCWY could reduce IMD caused by all 5 meningococcal serogroups among the US adolescent population, while also reducing the number of injections required.